A highly original, stirring book on Mahatma Gandhi that deepens our sense of his achievements and disappointments—his success in seizing India’s imagination and shaping its independence struggle as a mass movement, his recognition late in life that few of his followers paid more than lip service to his ambitious goals of social justice for the country’s minorities, outcasts, and rural poor.
Pulitzer Prize–winner Joseph Lelyveld shows in vivid, unmatched detail how Gandhi’s sense of mission, social values, and philosophy of nonviolent resistance were shaped on another subcontinent—during two decades in South Africa—and then tested by an India that quickly learned to revere him as a Mahatma, or “Great Soul,” while following him only a small part of the way to the social transformation he envisioned. The man himself emerges as one of history’s most remarkable self-creations, a prosperous lawyer who became an ascetic in a loincloth wholly dedicated to political and social action. Lelyveld leads us step-by-step through the heroic—and tragic—last months of this selfless leader’s long campaign when his nonviolent efforts culminated in the partition of India, the creation of Pakistan, and a bloodbath of ethnic cleansing that ended only with his own assassination.
India and its politicians were ready to place Gandhi on a pedestal as “Father of the Nation” but were less inclined to embrace his teachings. Muslim support, crucial in his rise to leadership, soon waned, and the oppressed untouchables—for whom Gandhi spoke to Hindus as a whole—produced their own leaders.
Here is a vital, brilliant reconsideration of Gandhi’s extraordinary struggles on two continents, of his fierce but, finally, unfulfilled hopes, and of his ever-evolving legacy, which more than six decades after his death still ensures his place as India’s social conscience—and not just India’s.
Joseph Lelyveld’s interest in Gandhi dates back to tours in India and South Africa as a correspondent for The New York Times, where he worked for nearly four decades, ending up as executive editor from 1994 to 2001. His book on apartheid, Move Your Shadow: South Africa, Black and White, won the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction. He is also the author of Omaha Blues: A Memory Loop. He lives in New York.
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An evening with Joseph Lelyveld
Published on Apr 18, 2012
Pulitzer Prize-winning author Joseph Lelyveld’s book Great Souls: Mahatama Gandhi and His Struggles with India was published to much critical attention and controversy last year. The book was banned in Gujarat even before it reached bookstores.
In conversation with Ananya Vajpeyi as part of The Caravan Conversations series cohosted with The New York Times’ India Ink, Joseph Lelyveld talked about his views on Gandhi, the Mahatma’s time in South Africa and the philosophy he began to develop while there. Over the course of the conversation, Lelyveld spoke to Gandhi’s disappointment on 15 August 1947, and the insight gained from humanising a figure who is so often deified. Former executive editor of The New York Times, the author also discussed the process of writing the book and the four years of extensive research that took him across India and to South Africa. The Caravan hosted the conversation on 11 February 2012 in Delhi.
Never wrote that Gandhi was bisexual: Joseph Lelyveld
Retracting his earlier comments, Lelyveld now says that Gandhi’s relation with a German man Hermann Kallenbach was only celibate. He had earlier suggested that the two shared a physical relationship. Lelyveld however had said that his work does not allege Gandhi was gay or bisexual, and the book is being misinterpreted.